Science Information

Science Information

New Energy Bill: Reducing Our Dependence on Foreign Oil

The U. S.

America and its Collision Course

Energy ESP #7 - America and its Collision CourseCrude oil explodes through $46.50 as the problems are growing -It's bigger than Iraq, bigger than Bin Laden and even bigger thanthe next election.

Positive Effects of Carbon Dioxide for Plant Growth

Many articles have been written about the negative effects of carbon dioxide. Sick Building Syndrome, loss of concentration due to high levels of carbon dioxide, asphyxiation in breweries or wine cellars, all these things spring to mind when we hear the magic phrase carbon dioxide.

Marine News - Summer 2004 - Our Ocean Environment

Our oceans are home to many marine mammals, fish, turtles, corals and others. The delicate balance between man and the ocean is constantly being challenged by the demands of our society.

How Body Piercing Works -- The Ins and Outs of this Cutting Edge Process

Body piercing (defined as any piercing beyond the standard earlobe piercing) has become such a popular form of body modification that between five and ten percent of the population of the United States has indulged in at least one form of it at some time in their lives. In most cases, once a person gets a body piercing, they follow the first one with more.

The Joy of Recycling

I have always been an advocate of recycling. Even though I am not always convinced of its financial viability, I am thoroughly convinced of its value as a means of increasing public awareness of the cost of our consumerism.

Energy and America

America is entering into a time of Energy crisis. Itcould easily be the greatest crisis that human-kind isto face.

Diamond Flashes

Beyond magnificence and splendor, the world of diamonds evolves on stirred grounds. When the stake is so important, interests collide.

The Valuable Individual

How can we, as individuals, participate in waste management? Because some of us are so overwhelmed with Earth's problems, we feel that our contributions have no real consequence in the end. For others, social barriers can be an issue.

Trash Talk Your Way to a Better World

North Americans account for less than 10% of the world's population, yet we produce 50% of the world's garbage and consume more than 33% of it's resources. If everyone consumed like the average North American, we would require three Earths!Authors Dave and Lillian Brummet offer an upbeat, proactive look at waste and resource management with their inspiring new book Trash Talk.

Get Hot on Combustion

Energy in the form of heat is obtained when fuel is burnt in air. The release of this heat energy can be slow or can be very rapid.

Why Condition Your Boiler Water?

A boiler is used for generating steam. It does this by heating water to its boiling point, after which steam will evaporate from it.

Tsunami Defined

Tsunami is a Japanese term that describes a large seismically generated sea wave which is capable of considerable destruction in certain coastal areas, especially where underwater earthquakes occur.In Japanese, "Tsunami" means "Harbor Wave" or "Wave In The Harbor" It is now internationally accepted as the term that defines a "Seismic Seawave.

Glyco Nutrients & Stem Cell Production

During the speach, Dr. Reg McDaniel talked about first seeing new stem cells in the peripheral blood of clients using glyconutrients many years ago and not recognizing these cells as stem cells.

Traffic Zoology

There is a secret zoo that runs encaged along the roads.They are liquid, semi-visible goliaths that rage through the streams and chunks of ordinary traffic, with the effervescent tendrils of mile-long tales whipping behind them like Chinese dragons.

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Reference and Education:Science Articles from
10/26/2017 08:49 AM
In Search of Yesterday (Science Fiction Story)
Oberon was a young biologist who lived in outer space in a biodome. What brought him into the cosmic void was completely out of his understanding.
10/21/2017 10:43 AM
Exceptions To The Rule: The Speed Of Light (And Gravity?)
We normally expect within our reality and in the physical sciences for there to be a fair degree of consistency. When consistency is broken, then one has to really sit up and take notice and try to figure things out, for things are not always as they seem. One such anomaly with respect to consistency is the speed of light and its relationship to velocities in other contexts.
10/20/2017 08:44 AM
Gravitational Waves and Life Force, Extension of Study of Sound and Light Waves
Dr T.S. Shankara, an Indian Institute of Technology Physics Professor turned Philosopher, In his research paper on Space, Time and causality derives that it is possible to 'hear' air when one travels with a speed higher than that of Sound in the medium AIR. Likewise one can "see' ether when it moves with a speed more than that of LIGHT. The purpose of this article is to extend the theory further to derive that when one moves with a speed more than that of a GRAVITATIONAL wave, one can feel the movement of LIFE FORCE.
10/19/2017 09:45 AM
HEPA Filters and Their Use
Air pollution is not exclusively outdoors. It can occur inside your home as well. Dust mites, dirt, mold spores, animal hair and pollen hidden in carpet fibers, behind the curtains, under your bed and other parts of your home can be part of the indoor home circulation and can irritate your respiratory system.
10/19/2017 09:22 AM
Fishbone Diagram of Investigation
Fishbone diagram, also referred to as Ishikawa or Cause-and-effect diagram is used during the process of finding the main cause of a complex problem by arranging ideas into simple, organized and classified groups. As the name suggests, it gives a preview of the causes and the effects. In the head, notably the head of the fish in the fishbone diagram, effects are written, while the side bones of the fishbone diagram are possible causes.
10/19/2017 09:21 AM
Principle of HPLC
HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) is a chromatographic technique used to separate mixtures or compounds in the field of analytical chemistry, biochemistry and in the manufacturing sector. HPLC thus plays a critical role in the pharmaceutical field since its used to test the products and ingredients used to make them. Simply said, it's a method of separating, identifying and quantifying each component in a mixture or compound.
10/19/2017 09:20 AM
Operational Qualification
The operational qualification is a series of tests done to check and clarify the proper operation of a system. The test requirements outlined in the functioning requirements and specification. The tests should all take place before the system s taken out for use or sale.
10/19/2017 09:19 AM
Good Laboratory Practices
The knowledge gained over a long period of time in the establishment of a system of Good laboratory practices in pharmaceuticals industry is highlighted with respect to some specification like design, location, equipment, chemicals and mixing chemicals, reports and auditing. The laboratory should be located, designed, customised to meet the performance required by all quality control and analytical requirement. Although good laboratory practices in pharmaceuticals require that the laboratory should be well located to accommodate the manufacturing department, the two should be separate to avoid dust, vibration and internal and external traffic of...
10/19/2017 09:18 AM
Dissolution Apparatus and Its Use
In the Pharmaceutical world, dissolution is a profound quality control test. It is defined as the amount of solute or solid drug that is placed in a solution per unit time under standardized conditions of temperature, solvent composition and liquid or solid interface. In the dissolution testing process, solubility is the most important parameter to consider in achieving the desired effect.
10/19/2017 09:14 AM
User Requirement Specification
A user requirement specification, abbreviated as URS, is a document written by a buyer outlining the requirements of an equipment he/she wants to buy. The buyer can also be an organization. More specifically in the pharmaceutical field, the company's user department prepares the URS and hands it over to the manufacturing department.
10/16/2017 10:02 AM
ICH Guidelines for Pharmaceuticals
Since the birth of the ICH (International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements in Pharmaceuticals for Human Use) in 1990, the organization has been the main body regulating guidelines for medicines produced on a global scale to guarantee the quality, effectiveness and over all safety of drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. Quality Guidelines When regulating the quality of pharmaceuticals, the ICH has a number of different processes to ensure the safety of all new drug products. First is a stability test which involves understanding the most effective temperatures to store products appropriately to suit...
10/16/2017 10:01 AM
Water for Injection and Its Preparation
According to the FDA Water for Injection is a non-pyrogenic and sterile water used for intravenous injection after addition of a suitable solute. Its pH value ranges from 5.0 to 7.0 usually maintained at 5.5. Its osmolarity is 0. As it is used intravenously and must be sterile at all times, it demands absolute precision in preparation. The USP and FDA allow two methods for preparing water for Injection, they are:
10/13/2017 10:25 AM
PH Meters and Their Working
Acids and bases have free hydrogen and hydroxide ions in an aqueous medium. A solution with more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions is said to be basic, and one with more hydrogen ions is said to be acidic. A pH meter uses an electric probe to find the pH of a solution.
10/13/2017 10:25 AM
HPLC Columns
High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a practice in analytical chemistry. It is used to identify, quantify and separate each single part in an element. The HPLC Columns uses pumps pass a liquid solvent under pressure which contains the sample mixture via a column full of the solid absorbent element.
10/09/2017 09:12 AM
Self-Inspection in Pharmaceuticals
Self-inspection is generally a method used to visualize one's own business on matters that gives a productive overall review in the sense to increase the positive effect of quality assurance on the pharmaceutical products. There are certain practices to be followed and conform to the guidelines put forward by agencies that control the authorization for manufacturing of food and drugs under pharmaceutical products termed as Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP). The self-inspection team must be in compliance with GMP to succeed in the methodology of quality assurance.
10/02/2017 08:05 AM
The Simulation Hypothesis: Evidence From Physics
If physics is inconsistent it's more likely we're in a computer simulation. If physics is internally self-consistent then it's more likely we're in a really real reality. Alas, we have contradictions / inconsistencies in physics - relativity vs. quantum mechanics for example. Therefore, according to cosmologist George Smoot (on YouTube), you exist in a simulation and physics can prove it. However, here's my initial collection of evidence from physics.
09/29/2017 08:44 AM
Simulation of a Pair of Dice
A pair of dice when cast yield a lot of possibilities. The sum may range between 2 and 12. In this article we will use Discrete Event Simulation to study which combination is most likely to occur.
09/29/2017 08:40 AM
Calibrating Parametric Estimation Models
Parametric Estimation models express output as a function of input, so by some means the cost of undertaking a project is expressed as a function of several variables. But the data used to train the estimation model to yield the coefficients are dependant upon some conditions that they have to be recalibrated during some other conditions.
09/26/2017 05:28 PM
Materialistic Thinking - Rational or Irrational?
A materialistic way of thinking assumes that science is the be-all and end-all of human knowledge. Those who have this outlook claim that the methods of science are the only reliable ways to secure knowledge of anything. But should we really treat science as our exclusive guide to reality? Are there no other credible sources of knowledge and understanding about our existence?
09/19/2017 01:01 PM
The Starting Point of the Simplex
The simplex is a method used in linear programming problems to obtain solutions to linear programming problems. But the simplex assumes a starting point where the non basic variables are set to 0 each. Here the starting point of the simplex may be far away from the optimum.
09/18/2017 08:07 AM
Science - Does It Invalidate Religion?
New imaging technologies allow science to measure blood flow and neural activity whilst people are meditating and praying. Science claims it can predict and measure religious experience in this way. Atheists like Richard Dawkins are saying this is evidence that religious experience is nothing more than natural activity in certain parts of the brain. From this they conclude that there is no such thing as any supernatural reality. There is an alternative interpretation. Just because religious experiences are accompanied by predictable brain activity, why should this mean they are caused by it?
09/16/2017 10:24 AM
Physics of an Inclined Plane
If a ball is rolled down on an inclined plane, the total energy is conserved. Potential Energy is converted to Kinetic energy as the ball rolls down. It will hence be interesting to see if energy is conserved and so if MGH = 0.
09/13/2017 02:49 PM
Decision Making and Decision Fatigue - What's the Science, Dude?
Decision Making is it a science or an art? I will try to explain the neuroscience behind decision making which is an autonomous process in most of the people.
09/11/2017 09:29 AM
Working of an HVAC System
HVAC is meant for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning. The goal of HVAC is to control the temperature of air inside the assigned "Air conditioned" space as well as control of moisture, filtration of air and supply of outside natural air for control of oxygen and carbon dioxide levels noticeable all around the conditioned space, main control of the development of air or drought. Every one of these elements comprises an efficient HVAC system.
09/11/2017 09:28 AM
GAMP 5 Guidelines
The GAMP, which is an abbreviation for Good Automated Manufacturing Practice refers to a technical policy group within the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering. The group was put together in 1991 in the UK with the aim of handling the existing United States regulations for achieving appropriate production practices in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products.
09/05/2017 11:03 AM
Performance Qualification (PQ)
Pharmaceutical companies are on the rise today. The industry is booming with high ratios of dependency of the patient. The agenda of these companies is to prepare a medical drug to either use or sell it through appropriate means.
09/05/2017 11:01 AM
Restricted Access Barrier System
In the pharmaceutical sector, the restricted access barrier system is credited for assisting manufacturers to ensure a high level of sterility to in the production of drugs and drug products. The system's rationale is grounded on the need for pharmaceutical manufacturers to adopt strict standards in assuring that the drugs produced are free of all contamination or infectivity risk.
09/01/2017 07:44 AM
Cruelty to Animals in the Name of Science
Watching a video of a cat being experimented on in a University laboratory has made me sick. Animal cruelty comes in many different forms and the pain they endure strikes me at my core. Human suffering is more bearable because we can yell and scream and make ourselves heard but animals are silenced as man does his worst to them.
08/24/2017 03:40 PM
The Cosmic Creativity in Modern Science
In Einstein's theory of relativity, the notions of events (space and time simultaneity), mass and energy equivalence (special relativity), space expansion (big bang) as well as space and energy-mass equivalence, are introduced. General theory of relativity combined to quantum mechanics leads to the emergence of the whole universe from zero and absolute nothingness. Such "emergence - creation" of the universe from zero does not take place in space or time, since both are identical to the universe, space as energy expansion of the vacant space and time as a measurement unit of movement and change.
08/24/2017 02:35 PM
Motion and Intelligence
If you find symmetry, uniformity and orderliness in a moving system, then it is assured that there will always be an "intelligence" confined to the system itself or external to it causing the optimum motion for the sustentation or preservation of the aggregate to which it forms a part. This is the general rule. Let's think about motion and intelligence which go unnoticed.
08/10/2017 10:30 AM
Brainteasers for Physicists, Biologists, Chemists, Mathematicians and Other Crazy Brainiacs
You can imagine speeds of light, sound and falling objects without being a physicist, and you can envision the Earth's vast biodensity of insects, birds and fish without being a biologist. You can grasp the infinitesimally small size of an atom and the gargantuan number of molecules you'd find in a drop of water without being a chemist; and you can fathom the immensity of large numbers and the enormity of the universe without being a mathematician. No problem, right?
08/03/2017 03:39 PM
The Physics of Night Vision Goggles
This is an article about the physics of night vision goggles. The topic connect to the electromagnetic spectrum.
08/03/2017 03:30 PM
Hot Air Balloon
Hot air balloons are a leisure flying air vessel that uses warm air from burning propane, as energy. Hot air balloons have three main parts: an envelope or balloon, a basket, and burners. The envelope is a bag of strong nylon fabric with an opening at one end called a mouth.
08/03/2017 03:29 PM
The Works of An Electrical Circuit
This is an explanation of the fundamentals of an electrical circuit. This includes the way a resistor works.
08/02/2017 12:15 PM
Why Sound Has Different Speeds in Different Media
Sound has different speeds in different media because of the phase or stage that the object stands at. Speed is basically how fast an object is moving and the rate at which an object covers distance.
08/01/2017 02:06 PM
Limiting Reagents
In chemical reactions, there are specific factors such as limiting reagents, percent yield, theoretical yield, and actual yield. The limiting reagent - or component, of a balanced chemical formula is the reactant which confines the amount of product - or yield, that may be formed. The limiting reagent can be found by multiplying the necessary ratios obtained from the chemical reaction.
07/25/2017 10:56 AM
Chemical Bonds
Shows the way chemical bonds are formed. It also demonstrates how chemical bonds are similar and different.
07/17/2017 10:05 AM
Manipulate Atoms With the Right Tools
With the right tools, you can take your scientific studies and theories to the next level. One of the challenging but intriguing option is to manipulate atoms. In order to do this successfully and with accuracy, you need to use an electron tunneling microscope.
07/17/2017 08:22 AM
Deconstructing and Reconstructing the Universe
The Universe can be pulled apart and put back together again, like Lego blocks. What might such a deconstruction and reconstruction tell us about the real nature of the Universe? Maybe that real nature is of a virtual nature.
05/31/2017 09:02 AM
The Magnetic Surveys
Magnetic method does involve the measurement of the earth's magnetic field intensity over an area of interest. This method is being widely used in mineral exploration, location of faults, dykes, location of buried pipes, oil exploration, archaeological surveys, etc.
05/30/2017 10:14 AM
Ion Conductance Microscopy - How to Make Sure Materials Are High Quality
Ion conductance microscopy is currently used in various fields, from the medical field to biology fields. It can be used to learn more about cells, such as how they interact with certain medications.
05/30/2017 10:14 AM
Ion Conductance Microscopy - Get the Perfect Image
Ion conductance microscopy was first invented by a man by the name of Hansma in 1989. This form of microscopy differed from others in the way that it was designed to retrieve information. Instead of a hard probe being stuck into a sample, this form of microscopy looked at the changes in ion conductance between two electrodes.
05/30/2017 08:57 AM
The Electrical Methods of Geophysical Exploration
All the electrical methods are ground based. The electrical current can be carried through the earth either by the motion of free electrons or ions in the solid or by the motion of ions in the connate water which is due to the dissociation of salts such as sodium chloride, magnesium chloride, etc.
05/23/2017 09:42 AM
Well Logging
Well logging was initially used to correlate the similar patterns of electrical conductivity from one well to another well even for a long distances. The improvements in techniques of measurements are responsible for the usage of well logging for structural mapping, reservoir description, and also for the identification of sediments.
05/22/2017 03:35 PM
Calculation Of Empty Space In An Atom (Considering The Simplest Hydrogen Atom)
How much of an atom is empty space? Very nearly all of it. Let's take a look at an atom of hydrogen to see how empty it really is. A hydrogen atom is made from a single proton that's circled by a single electron. How big is a hydrogen atom? The radius of a hydrogen atom is known as the Bohr Radius, which is equal to.529 ? 10-10 meters.
05/05/2017 10:37 AM
Eugenics: Dark Past of Selective Breeding
Eugenics was first studied as a way to pass on desirable traits, like intelligence, among humans. It began its shadowy and often debated turn in the United States in the late 1800's when it became a study into the possibility of breeding out undesirable traits, rather than breeding in desirable ones. In 1911, the United States founded the Eugenics Records Office in New York. This department was dedicated to studying family histories of those who were deemed "undesirable," and the conclusion was reached that "undesirable" individuals came from poor families with no real social standing, minorities and immigrants. Most shocking was the "conclusion" that being poor was not due to poverty itself, but due to genetics.
05/05/2017 10:33 AM
Gene Therapy: The Key to Making Humans Disease Free?
Whenever one imagines the word therapy it's usually in the context of someone suffering a mental breakdown and needing to be taken to a shrink for getting electric shocks. Similarly, gene Therapy may sound like some corrective measure undertaken when a gene in one's body getting fed up with life, going crazy and needing counseling. Though very simply put, according to the FDA, it's a process in which a malfunctioning gene in deactivated and a normally functioning one is added to a body.
04/27/2017 09:52 AM
Wonders of Science
Our present era is truly the age of science. The wonders of science are in the peak in this era. Science has progressed by leaps and bounds. It has completely changed the man and brought tremendous revolutions in our lives. Science and technology has changed the man and his life style. It has transformed the very face of the earth. Human beings discovered great inventions and far-reaching discoveries through science. Science has blessed mankind with such instruments and have earned a name and reverence science.
04/07/2017 12:27 PM
5 Common Types of Cells in the Body
The human body has literally trillions of cells that come in a wide range of sizes and shapes. They help to make up the basic structure of living organisms. The different types of cells are perfectly suited to their individual roles.
04/05/2017 12:48 PM
Opposing Intelligent Design Is Not Intelligent
Are we and the world we observe the product of mere fortuitous natural actions of nature? Or is there something or Someone higher than nature, something that made and ordered nature? Believe the first, and you may become fully devoted to exploring the mysteries of nature - a scientist, a worthy ambition, indeed. Believe the second, and you may find God. Believe the second and find the God of nature, and you will see nature in a whole new light. It is past time for the educators in our world to put aside their bias against the Bible and admit that there are incredible signs of "purposeful design" in the world we know. In fact, the more you study real science, the more evidence you discover about this fact.

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